Mid-Eighteenth Century Pennsylvania
By John T. Humphrey
Page 1, 2, 3, 4
- "Account Of The Journey Of Br. And Sr. Ludwig
v. Schweinitz From Herrnhut To Bethlehem in Pennsylvania," The
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, (Historical Society
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1922) 46:329-331.
- John C. Brickenstein, "The Second Sea
Congregation, 1743," Transactions of the Moravian Historical
- John C. Brickenstein, "The First Sea
Congregation A, D. 1742," Transactions of the Moravian
Historical Society, p. 42-43; hereafter cited as "The First Sea
- Ibid. 43.
- Carl Theo. Eben, translator, Gottlieb
Mittelberger's Journey To Pennsylvania In The Year 1750 And
Returning To Germany In The Year 1754 , (Joseph Y. Jeanes,
Philadelphia, 1898) 48; hereafter cited as Mittelberger.
- R. W. Kelsey, "An Early Description of
Pennsylvania, Letter Of Christopher Sower, Written In 1724,
Describing Conditions In Philadelphia And Vicinity, And The Sea
Voyage From Europe," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History And
Biography, (The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,
1921) 45:246; hereafter cited as Saur.
- Mittelberger, 26.
- Aaron Spencer Fogleman, Hopeful Journeys, German
Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America,
1717-1775, (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1996)
132; hereafter cited as Hopeful Journeys.
- "The First Sea Congregation," 48-49.
- Map of Philadelphia Published According to an Act
of Parliament November 1, 1762 and Sold by the Editors, Matthew,
Clarkson and Mary Biddle, Philadelphia, (Reproduced in 1969 by
Historic Urban Plans, Ithaca, NY); hereafter cited as Map of
- Ralph Beaver Strassburger and William John Hinke,
Pennsylvania German Pioneers, A Publication of the Original Lists of
Arrivale In The Port of Philadelphia From 1727 to 1808,
(Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, 1980) 1:509-574;
hereafter cited as Strassburger and Hinke.
- Billy G. Smith, The Lower Sort, Philadelphia's
Laboring People, 1750-1800, (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY,
1990) 15; hereafter cited as The Lower Sort.
- Ibid., 113.
- Map of Philadelphia, 1762.
- Mittelberger, 49.
- Ibid., 120-121.
- John T. Humphrey, Pennsylvania Births,
Philadelphia County, 1644-1765 and 1766-1780, (Humphrey
Publications, Washington DC, 1995). Between 1644 and 1780 17,290
birth/baptisms were recorded in the following English and
Scotch-Irish church registers: Christ Church, 4 Friend's Meetings,
1st and 2nd Presbyterian Church, Pennypack Baptist, First Baptist,
Trinity Episcopal, Scot's Presbyterian, St. Paul's Episcopal, and
St. George's Methodist. Between 1743 and 1780 19,792 births/
baptisms were recorded in the following German churches: St.
Michael's and Zion Lutheran, St. Michael's Lutheran, Germantown,
First Reformed, Philadelphia, the Reformed Church, Germantown, and
the Moravian. Not included in these totals were baptisms from Old
Swedes, and St. Joseph's Catholic.
- Carl Bridenbaugh, Cities In Revolt Urban Life in
America 1743-1776, (Oxford University Press, NY, 1955) 135.
- Saur, 247.
- William Henry Egle, "The Annals of a
Moravian Indian Village, 1760-1763," Notes And Queries,
Historical, Biographical, And Genealogical Relating Chiefly To
Interior Pennsylvania, Annual Volume 1897, (Genealogical Publishing
Company, Baltimore, 1970) 153-154.
- Hopeful Journeys, 59.
- Ibid., 16.
- Ibid., 74.
- Ibid., 77.
- Mittelberger, 119.
- John W. Kleiner and Helmut T. Lehman, The
Correspondence of Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg, Volume 1,
1740-1747, (Picton Press, Camden, ME, 1986) 118; hereafter cited as
- William J. Hinke, "Diaries Of Missionary
Travels Among The German Settlers In The American Colonies
1743-1748," The Pennsylvania German Society Proceedings And
Addresses, (Published By The Society 1929) 34:79.
- Muhlenberg Correspondence, 80.
- Benjamin F. Owen, "Letters of Rev. Richard
Locke, and Rev. George Craig, Missionaries In Pennsylvania of the
Society For Propagating the Gospel In Foreign Parts,
1746-1752," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,
(The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., 1900),
- James T. Lemon, The Best Poor Man's Country A
Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania, (W. W. Norton
& Company, NY, 1972) 37, 63; hereafter cited as Best Poor Man's
- Ibid., 104.
- Joshua Gilpin, "Journey To Bethlehem,"
The Pennsylvania Magazine Of History And Biography, ( The Historical
Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1922) 46:30.
- Mittelberger, 119.
- Capt. F. Ellis, History of Northampton County,
Pennsylvania With Illustrations Descriptive of its History, (Peter
Fritts, Philadelphia, PA, 1877) 36.
- Theodore G. Teppert, The Journals of Henry
Melchior Muhlenberg, (Picton Press, Camden ME, 1942) 1:378;
hereafter referred to as Muhlenberg's Journals.
- William N. Schwarze and Ralf Ridgway Hillman, The
Dansbury Diaries, Moravian Travel Diaries 1748-1755 of the Reverend
Sven Roseen and others in the area of Dansbury, now Stroudsburg,
Pa., (Picton Press, Camden, ME 1994), 26; hereafter referred to as
the Dansbury Diaries.
- Mittelberger, 80-81.
- John C. Miller, The First Frontier: Life in
Colonial America, (Dell Publishing Co., Inc., NY, 1966) 166.
- J. Hector Crevecoeur, Letters From an American
Farmer And Sketches Of 18th-Century America, (Penquin Books, Ltd.,
Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1981) 359.
- John Heil entries, 1768-1776 tax assessments,
Northampton County, PA, microcopy XR/702, Historical Society of
- Adelaide L. Fries, Records Of The Moravians In
North Carolina, (State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh,
NC 1968 reprint) 1:50; hereafter cited as Moravians in North
- Mittelberger, 108.
- Hopeful Journeys, 58.
- Best Poor Man's Country, 108, Mittelberger, 67.
- Moravians in North Carolina, 1:48.
- Dansbury Diaries, 146.
- Ibid., 145.
- Ibid., 146.
- Ibid., 50.
- Saur, 252.
- Mittelberger, 68.
- The Lower Sort, 51, 103.
- Mittelberger, 64.
- Best Poor Man's Country, 158, 164.
- Mittelberger, 64.
- Best Poor Man's Country, 167.
- Best Poor Man's Country, 154.
- John Jacob Eyerly, "Outstanding Debts in
Mill Book," Northampton County, PA, estate file no. 1994.
- Agreement: Jacob and Christina Frack with Michael
Frack, Recorder of Deeds, Northampton County, PA Deed Book D3:411.
- Petitions of Citizens for township boundaries and
roads, 1721-1800, Bucks County, Historical Society of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, no. Bu/11A:1.
- Christian Muffley entry, 1798 US Direct Tax For
The State of Pennsylvania, 5th District Northampton County,
microcopy no. 12, National Archives, Washington DC.
- Christian Muffley household, 1800 U. S. census,
Northampton County, PA, page 79A, National Archives micro film no.
- John Dietrich, Northampton County, PA, estate
file no. 1583.
- Mittelberger, 57.
- Preston A. Barbara, They Came to Emmaus, (Lehigh
Litho, Inc., Bethlehem, PA, 1960) 60.
- Marlene S. Bates, York County Pennsylvania Church
Records of the 18th Century, (Family Line Publications, Westminster,
MD, 1991) 5.
- Mittelberger, 57.
- Muhlenberg's Journals, 1:317.
- Ibid., 2:769.
- Ibid., 2:226.
- "Scott T. Swank, Arts Of The Pennsylvania
Germans, (W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., NY, 1983) 47.